Cse Name Year Bibliography Mla

CSE Name-Year Documentation

In this CSE citation system, references in your text give the last name of the author or authors and the year of publication within parentheses. These parenthetical refer to sources listed at the end of the document.

Contents of this page

In-text references

CSE's name-year in-text reference takes the form of the author's last name and the year of publication, in parentheses.

Cite a source written by one author

The rapid discovery of the unique mechanisms underlying crown gall disease demonstrated how quickly an area could advince given significant investment and competition (Zambryski 1988).

Cite a source written by two authors

Initial infection of tubers by H. solani occurs in the field either from the seed tuber (Jellis and Taylor 1977) or soil (Merida and Loria 1994).

Cite a source written by three or more authors

For example, terrestrial carbon can play a central role in supporting lake food webs (Pace et al. 2004), while the problem of aquatic ecosystem eutrophication is driven by urban and agricultural land use that contributes nutrients to downstream aquatic systems (Carpenter et al. 1998).

Where to cite

Cite sources as close as practicable to the information they support. This might mean citing a source at the end of a sentence or in the middle of a sentence. This might lead to long sentences, with citations immediately following the topics with which those sources are associated:

Although "target" ranges of MUN have been proposed (Hof et al. 1997; Kohn et al. 2002), its use as a management tool on farms remains uncertain because of permanent or temporary effects specific to herds (e.g., rolling herd average for milk production; Rajala-Schultz and Saville 2003), cows within a herd (e.g., breed, parity, stage of lactation; Godden et al. 2001), DHI test-day level of milk production (Johnson and Young 2003), method of sampling (morning vs. evening; Godden et al. 2001), method of analysis (Peterson et al. 2004; Kohn et al. 2004), and time-dependent factors such as month (Arunvipas et al. 2003) or season (Godden et al. 2001).

If you name your author in the sentence near the citation, you do not need to repeat that name in the citation itself:

In this study we develop a conceptual model for understanding the linkages between aquatic habitats and the surrounding terrestrial landscape, building on ideas presented by Polis and Hurd (1996) and Gasith and Hasler (1976) who examined spatial linkages between islands and the surrounding sea and terrestrial organic inputs into lakes, respectively.

Cite a source written by an organization

When citing an organization, corporation, or university as an author, use an abbreviation or acronym to avoid interrupting your text with a long citation.

Holstein dairy cows in the Dairy Herd Improvement program born in 2009 compared to 1990 had a 28-percent-greater milk yield (26,861 pounds vs. 20,959 pounds) (AIPL 2011).

Here is what the reference list entry for this source would look like:

AIPL (Animal Improvement Program Laboratory), USDA. 2011. Trend in milk BV for Holstein [Internet]. [Cited 20 June 2013.] Available from http://aipl.arsusda.gov/eval/summary/trend.cfm?R_Menu=HO#StartBody.

Cite a work cited by your source (secondary citation)

Secondary citations refer to material that you have not seen in its original form but rather have obtained from another document that cited the original source. In the 2006 edition of the CSE Manual, secondary citations are not listed as a valid form of citation. Instead, find and cite the original source.

Quote or excerpt a source

Although CSE provides rules for how to quote or excerpt sources, in practice almost no scientists publishing in journals that use CSE documentation choose to quote sources. Instead, these authors paraphrase or simply cite authors.

When you quote or excerpt a source, include an in-text reference to help your reader see what source you are quoting from. The seventh edition of the CSE Manual does not provide specific rules for identifying the page number or other location information for that source.

The below examples demonstrate how journals adapt CSE's guidelines to include page numbers after the year of publication:

Farmers participating in these knowledge networks, Hassanein writes, "challenged the power relations in agricultural knowledge production and distribution by relying on their own and members' experiential knowledge" (Hassanein 1997, 304).

Similarly, Hayward, Simpson, and Wood (2004:95) describe "a mythologizing of the power of participatory methodologies to accomplish problem solving, emancipation or empowerment."

Cite multiple sources in a sentence

Multiple works by different authors

Put the sources in chronological order from oldest to most recent (and alphabetically if published in the same year). Separate studies by semicolon:

Readers curious about plant pathogenic bacteria are encouraged to explore the following and other older sources, which describe key research questions that remain unsolved (Smith 1920; Walker 1963; Schuster and Coyne 1974; Vidaver 1981; Mount and Lacy 1982; Starr 1984; Billing 1987; Nester 2004).

Theoretical studies suggest that plant diversity is a primary determinant of animal diversity (Hutchison 1959; Rosenzweig 1995; Knops et al. 1999), and experimental work has demonstrated a positive relationship between plant diversity and upper trophic-level diversity (Siemann 1998; Siemann et al. 1998; Knops et al. 1999; Koricheva et al. 2000; Haddad 2001).

Multiple works by the same author or set of authors (different years)

Cite them by naming the author, or set of authors, once and listing the years separated by commas:

Similarly, a series of epidemiological studies of P. syringae as a bean epiphyte and pathogen by Hirano and Upper laid the foundation for elegant experiments showing that type III secreted effectors and the Gac regulon are each critical for epiphytic fitness in the field; these important phenotypes were invisible in the controlled environment of a growth chamber (Upper and Hirano 1996; Hirano et al. 1997, 1999).

Multiple works by the same author or set of authors (same year)

Add a letter after the year to help your reader see which source in your reference list you mean. Assign letters chronologically, so that the work that was published first is listed, for example, as 2002a.

Mobile organisms that regularly traverse ecosystem boundaries have the capacity to deliver nutrients and energy, and affect consumers within a recipient ecosystem (Lundberg and Moberg 2003) including vertebrate (Sabo and Power 2002b) and invertebrate taxa (Henschel et al. 2001b, Yang 2006).

Here is what the end references for the Sabo and Power sources look like:

Sabo JL, Power ME. 2002a. River-watershed exchange: effects of riverine subsidies on riparian lizards and their terrestrial prey. Ecology 83(7): 1860-1869.

Sabo JL, Power ME. 2002b. Numerical response of lizards to aquatic insects and short-term consequences for terrestrial prey. Ecology 83(11): 3023-3036.

Multiple works by the same first author but by different additional authors (same year)

If you are citing works published by the same first author in the same year but with different groups of additional authors, CSE's official rule is that you should name as many authors as necessary for your reader to be able to distinguish each source.

Recent studies investigating the location of the Vitamin D3 receptor (Wang and DeLuca 2011; Wang, Borchert, et al. 2012; Wang, Marling, et al. 2012; Wang, Zhu, et al. 2012) suggest that . . .

However, many publishers simplify this rule so that the primary author in a group of 3 or more total authors authors is classed as one group. In other words, "Wang et al." counts as one author, even though the "et al." may be different people on different studies:

Recent studies investigating the location of the Vitamin D3 receptor (Wang and DeLuca 2011; Wang et al. 2012a, 2012b, 2012c) suggest that . . .

End references and the reference list

The goal of your reference list is to help your reader identify each numbered source quickly and clearly. CSE has standardized the information to be provided for ease and predictability of reading.

What to call your reference list

"Reference list" is CSE's generic term for the list of sources at the end of your document. Your list should be given a more formal title: References or Cited References. If you used some documents as sources but did not cite them in your paper, list them alphabetically by author under the heading Additional References.

Format your end references

  • Authors' first names are rendered as capitals after their surnames.

    Otegui MS, Kiessling LL, Batzli J.

  • The reference list is organized alphabetically by author's last name. When there is more than one work by an author, those works are organized chronologically.

    Allen C, Bent A, Charkowski AO. 2009.
    Bennett AB, Gratton C. 2012.
    Bennett AB, Gratton C. 2013.
    Gratton C, Vander Zanden MJ. 2009

  • Only the first word of a book or article title should be capitalized.

    The fat-soluble vitamins: handbook of lipid research 2.

  • Titles are not italicized. However, species names are italicized.

    In vitro and in vivo reconstitution of the cadherin-catenin-actin complex from Caenorhabditis elegans.

  • To save space, journal titles are abbreviated according to the ISO 4 standard, shortening significant words and omitting insignificant words. Read more and search the List of Title Word Abbreviations at ISSN.org.

    Livestock Prod Sci.
    Biochem Mol Biol Educ.
    J Dairy Sci.

  • Year of publication and volume number are required for all references to articles. Issue number is strongly recommended. To save space, use no spaces to separate an article's date, volume, and page.

    Annu Rev Phytopathol. 50:425-49.
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 24(7):773-86.

Examples of end references

Book

References for books follow the order Author(s). Year. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent.

Allen C, Prior P, Hayward AC. 2005. Bacterial wilt: the disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. St. Paul (MN): APS Press 508 p.

[A book's extent in number of pages ("508 p." in the example above) is optional but provides useful information.]

Book chapter

References for chapters or other parts of a book follow the order Author(s). Year. Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book title. Place of publication: publisher. Page numbers for that chapter.

Allen, C. 2007. Bacteria, bioterrorism, and the geranium ladies of Guatemala. In: Cabezas AL, Reese E, Waller M, editors. Wages of empire: neoliberal policies, repression, and women's poverty. Boulder (CO): Paradigm Press. p. 169-177.

Otegui MS. 2007. Endosperm: development and molecular biology. In: Olson OA, editor. Endosperm cell walls: formation, composition, and functions. Heidelberg (Germany): Springer-Verlag. p. 159-178.

Journal article

References for journal articles follow the order Author(s). Year. Article title. Abbreviated journal title. Volume(issue):pages.

To save space, CSE suggests that writers abbreviate the titles of journals in according to the ISO 4 standard, which you can read about at ISSN. You can also search ISSN's List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Flores-Cruz Z, Allen C. 2011. Necessity of OxyR for the hydrogen peroxide stress response and full virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 77(18):6426-6432.

Powell JM, Wattiaux MA, Broderick GA. 2011. Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a management tool to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy farms. J Dairy Sci. 94(9):4690-4694

Wang Y, Zhu J, DeLuca HF. 2012. Where is the vitamin D receptor? Arch Biochem Biophys. 523(1):123-33.

Journal article found online

Reference list information for articles found online adds a medium designator—[Internet], including the brackets—at the end of the title of the journal, as well as a citation date and a URL.

The CSE Manual does not explicitly require this information if the online content is identical to the print content.

Werling BP, Lowenstein DM, Straub CS, Gratton C. 2012. Multi-predator effects produced by functionally distinct species vary with prey density. J Insect Sci [Internet]. [cited 12 Sep 2013];12(30). Available from: insectscience.org/12.30

8 Bennett AB, Gratton C. 2013. Floral diversity increases beneficial arthropod richness and decreases variability in arthropod community composition. Ecol Appl [Internet]. [cited 12 Sep 2013];23(1):86-95. Available from: http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2013/03/Ecological-Applications.pdf

Internet resource

Williamson RC. 2004. Deciduous tree galls [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/pddc/files/Fact_Sheets/FC_PDF/Deciduous_Tree_Galls.pdf

ASAP: systematic annotation package for community analysis of genomes [Internet]. 2013. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://www.genome.wisc.edu/tools/asap.htm

Stem Cell Research Oversight Committee. 2009. University of Wisconsin-Madison policy for multisite research studies using human pluripotent stem cells [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://www.grad.wisc.edu/admin/committees/scro/documents/MultisiteresearchpolicyFinal.pdf

Government document

Working Group on Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce (US). 2012. Draft report diversity in the biomedical research workforce [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://acd.od.nih.gov/Diversity%20in%20the%20Biomedical%20Research%20Workforce%20Report.pdf

Dissertation

Oliver SS. 2012. Context dependent protein interpretation of the histone language [dissertation]. University of Wisconsin-Madison. 238 p.

Conference presentation or lecture

If a conference paper is subsequently published, either in the proceedings of the conference or in a journal, cite as a chapter in a book or as an article in a journal. Otherwise, cite as follows.

Vierstra R. 2011. Atomic perspectives on phytochrome photoactivation and signaling. Paper presented at: Steenbock 35. Proceedings of the 35th Steenbock Symposium on Advances in Biomolecular NMR; Madison, WI.

References for this page

All examples on this page are taken from publications by UW-Madison professors, postdocs, and graduate students. Note that CSE doesn't call for hyperlinks.

Allen C, Bent A, Charkowski AO. 2009. Underexplored niches in research on plant pathogenic bacteria. Plant Physiol [Internet]. [Cited 20 June 2013.] 150(4):1631-1637. Available from http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/150/4/1631.full

Bennett AB, Gratton C. 2012. Measuring natural pest suppression at different spatial scales affects the importance of local variables. Environ Entomol. 41(5):1077-85.

Bennett AB, Gratton C. 2013. Floral diversity increases beneficial arthropod richness and decreases variability in arthropod community composition. Ecol Appl. 23(1):86-95.

Charkowski A, Blanco C, Condemine G, Expert D, Franza T, Hayes C, Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N, Lopez Solanilla E, Low D, Moleleki L, et al. 2012. The role of secretion systems and small molecules in soft-rot enterobacteriaceae pathogenicity. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 50:425-49.

Dreyer J, Hoekman D, Gratton C. 2012. Lake-derived midges increase abundance of shoreline terrestrial arthropods via multiple trophic pathways. Oikos [Internet]. [Cited 20 June 2013.] 121:252-258. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2012/04/Dreyer-et-al.-2012-Lake%E2%80%90derived-midges-increase-abundance-of-shorelin.pdf

Gratton C, Vander Zanden MJ. 2009. Flux of aquatic insect productivity to land: comparison of lentic and lotic ecosystems. Ecology 90(10):2689-2699.

Lyon A, Bell MM, Croll NS, Jackson R, Gratton C. 2010. Maculate conceptions: power, process, and creativity in participatory research. Rural Sociology [Internet]. [cited 20 Jun 2013];75(4):538-559. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2012/01/Lyons-et-al-2010-Rural-Soc-Maculate-conceptions.pdf

Lyon A, Bell MM, Gratton C, Jackson R. 2011. Farming without a recipe: Wisconsin graziers and new directions for agricultural science. J Rural St [Internet]. [cited 20 June 2013];27:384-393. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2012/01/Lyon_Farmingworecipe2011.pdf

Mattupalli C, Genger RK, Charkowski AO. 2013. Evaluating incidence of Helminthosporium solani and Colletotrichum coccodes on asymptomatic organic potatoes and screening potato lines for resistance to silver scurf. Am J Potato Res [Internet]. [Cited 20 June 2013.] Available from http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs12230-013-9314-3.pdf

Thomas DL. 2012. Utilization and potential of estimates of genetic value from an industry perspective. Sheep & Goat [Internet]. 27:13-15.

Wang Y, DeLuca HF. 2011. Is the vitamin d receptor found in muscle? Endocrinology. 152(2):354-63.

Wang Y, Borchert ML, Deluca HF. 2012a. Identification of the vitamin D receptor in various cells of the mouse kidney. Kidney Int. 81(10):993-1001.

Wang Y, Marling SJ, Zhu JG, Severson KS, DeLuca HF. 2012b. Development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice requires vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 29;109(22):8501-4.

Wang Y, Zhu J, DeLuca HF. 2012c. Where is the vitamin D receptor? Arch Biochem Biophys. 523(1):123-33.

Citation–Sequence and Citation–Name

The following examples illustrate the citation–sequence and citation–name systems. The two systems are identical except for the order of references. In both systems, numbers within the text refer to the end references.

In citation–sequence, the end references are listed in the sequence in which they first appear within the text. For example, if a reference by Smith is the first one mentioned in the text, then the complete reference to the Smith work will be number 1 in the end references. The same number is used for subsequent in-text references to the same document.

In citation–name, the end references are listed alphabetically by author. Multiple works by the same author are listed alphabetically by title. The references are numbered in that sequence, such that a work authored by Adam is number 1, Brown is number 2, and so on. Numbers assigned to the end references are used for the in-text references regardless of the sequence in which they appear in the text of the work. For example, if a work by Zielinski is number 56 in the reference list, each in-text reference to Zielinski will be number 56 also.

Journals

List authors in the order in which they appear in the original text, followed by a period. Periods also follow article and journal title and volume or issue information. Separate the date from volume and issue by a semicolon. The location (usually the page range for the article) is preceded by a colon.

Author(s). Article title. Journal title. Date;volume(issue):location.

Journal titles are generally abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations maintained by the ISSN International Centre. See Appendix 29.1 in Scientific Style and Format for more information.

For articles with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma.

Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 2003;9(1):49–58.

For articles with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by “et al.”

Pizzi C, Caraglia M, Cianciulli M, Fabbrocini A, Libroia A, Matano E, Contegiacomo A, Del Prete S, Abbruzzese A, Martignetti A, et al. Low-dose recombinant IL-2 induces psychological changes: monitoring by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Anticancer Res. 2002;22(2A):727–732.

Volume with no issue or other subdivision

Laskowski DA. Physical and chemical properties of pyrethroids. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002;174:49–170.

Volume with issue and supplement

Gardos G, Cole JO, Haskell D, Marby D, Paine SS, Moore P. The natural history of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Pharmacol. 1988;8(4 Suppl):31S–37S

Volume with supplement but no issue

Heemskerk J, Tobin AJ, Ravina B. From chemical to drug: neurodegeneration drug screening and the ethics of clinical trials. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5 Suppl:1027–1029.

Multiple issue numbers

Ramstrom O, Bunyapaiboonsri T, Lohmann S, Lehn JM. Chemical biology of dynamic combinatorial libraries. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1572(2–3):178–186.

Issue with no volume

Sabatier R. Reorienting health and social services. AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(4):1–3.

Books

Separate information about author(s), title, edition, and publication by periods. The basic format is as follows:

Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent. Notes.

Extent can include information about pagination or number of volumes and is considered optional. Notes can include information of interest to the reader, such as language of publication other than English; such notes are optional.

Essential notes provide information about location, such as a URL for online works. See Chapter 29 for more information.

For books with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma.

Ferrozzi F, Garlaschi G, Bova D. CT of metastases. New York (NY): Springer; 2000.

For books with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by “et al.”

Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, DeBusk RF, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995.

Organization as author

Advanced Life Support Group. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London (England): BMJ Books; 2001.

Author(s) plus editor(s) or translator(s)

Klarsfeld A, Revah F. The biology of death: origins of mortality. Brady L, translator. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press; 2003.

Luzikov VN. Mitochondrial biogenesis and breakdown. Galkin AV, translator; Roodyn DB, editor. New York (NY): Consultants Bureau; 1985.

Chapter or other part of a book, same author(s)

Gawande A. The checklist manifesto: how to get things right. New York (NY): Metropolitan Books; 2010. Chapter 3, The end of the master builder; p. 48–71.

Chapter or other part of a book, different authors

Rapley R. Recombinant DNA and genetic analysis. In: Wilson K, Walker J, editors. Principles and techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology. 7th ed. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press; 2010. p. 195–262.

Multivolume work as a whole

Alkire LG, editor. Periodical title abbreviations. 16th ed. Detroit (MI): Thompson Gale; 2006. 2 vol. Vol. 1, By abbreviation; vol. 2, By title.

Dissertations and Theses

Lutz M. 1903: American nervousness and the economy of cultural change [dissertation]. [Stanford (CA)]: Stanford University; 1989.

Patents

Blanco EE, Meade JC, Richards WD, inventors; Ophthalmic Ventures, assignee. Surgical stapling system. United States patent US 4,969,591. 1990 Nov 13.

Newspapers

Weiss R. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals. Washington Post (Home Ed.). 2003 Apr 11;Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

DVDs

Indicate a copyright date with a lowercase “c”.

Johnson D, editor. Surgical techniques in orthopaedics: anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction [DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; c2002. 1 DVD.

Websites and Other Online Formats

References to websites and other online formats follow the same general principles as for printed references, with the addition of a date of update/revision (if available) along with an access date and a URL.

Website

Format:

Title of Homepage. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

If no date of publication can be determined, use a copyright date (if available), preceded by “c”. Include the URL in the notes.

APSnet: plant pathology. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; c1994–2005 [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. http://www.apsnet.org/.

Online journal article

Format:

Author(s) of article. Title of article. Title of journal (edition). Date of publication [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue):location. Notes.

A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) may be included in the notes in addition to a URL, if available:

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ. 2005 [accessed 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119–1120. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

e-Book

Format:

Author(s). Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

Example:

Brogden KA, Guthmille JM, editors. Polymicrobial diseases. Washington (DC): ASM Press; 2002 [accessed February 28, 2014]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2475/.

Blog

Format:

Author’s name. Title of post [descriptive word]. Title of blog. Date of publication. [accessed date]. URL.

Example:

Fogarty M. Formatting titles on Twitter and Facebook [blog]. Grammar Girl: Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. 2012 Aug 14. [accessed 2012 Oct 19]. http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/formatting-titles-on-twitter-and-facebook.aspx.

Forthcoming or Unpublished Material

Not all forthcoming or unpublished sources are suitable for inclusion in reference lists. Check with your publisher if in doubt.

Forthcoming journal article or book

Journal article:

Farley T, Galves A, Dickinson LM, Perez MJ. Stress, coping, and health: a comparison of Mexican immigrants, Mexican-Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. J Immigr Health. Forthcoming 2005 Jul.

Book:

Goldstein DS. Adrenaline and the inner world: an introduction to scientific integrative medicine. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press. Forthcoming 2006.

Paper or poster presented at meeting

Unpublished presentations are cited as follows:

Antani S, Long LR, Thoma GR, Lee DJ. Anatomical shape representation in spine x-ray images. Paper presented at: VIIP 2003. Proceedings of the 3rd IASTED International Conference on Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing; 2003 Sep 8–10; Benalmadena, Spain.

Charles L, Gordner R. Analysis of MedlinePlus en Español customer service requests. Poster session presented at: Futuro magnifico! Celebrating our diversity. MLA ’05: Medical Library Association Annual Meeting; 2005 May 14–19; San Antonio, TX.

References to published presentations are cited much like contributions to books, with the addition of information about the date and place of the conference. See Chapter 29 for more information.

Personal communication

References to personal communication are placed in running text rather than as formal end references.

Permission is usually required and should be acknowledged in an “Acknowledgment” or “Notes” section at the end of the document.

. . . and most of these meningiomas proved to be inoperable (2003 letter from RS Grant to me; unreferenced, see “Notes”) while a few were not.

Name–Year

The following examples illustrate the name–year system. In this system (sometimes called the Harvard system), in-text references consist of the surname of the author or authors and the year of publication of the document. End references are unnumbered and appear in alphabetical order by author and year of publication, with multiple works by the same author listed in chronological order.

Each example of an end reference is accompanied here by an example of a corresponding in-text reference. For more details and many more examples, see Chapter 29 of Scientific Style and Format.

Journals

For the end reference, list authors in the order in which they appear in the original text. The year of publication follows the author list. Use periods to separate each element, including author(s), date of publication, article and journal title, and volume or issue information. Location (usually the page range for the article) is preceded by a colon.

Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.

Journal titles are generally abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations maintained by the ISSN International Centre. See Appendix 29.1 in Scientific Style and Format for more information.

For the in-text reference, use parentheses and list author(s) by surname followed by year of publication.

(Author(s) Year)

For articles with 2 authors, names are separated by a comma in the end reference but by “and” in the in-text reference.

Mazan MR, Hoffman AM. 2001. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiologic responses to exercise in standardbreds. Am J Vet Res. 62(11):1812–1817.

(Mazan and Hoffman 2001)

For articles with 3 to 10 authors, list all authors in the end reference; in the in-text reference, list only the first, followed by “et al.”

Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. 2003. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 9(1):49–58.

(Smart et al. 2003)

For articles with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 in the end reference, followed by “et al.”

Pizzi C, Caraglia M, Cianciulli M, Fabbrocini A, Libroia A, Matano E, Contegiacomo A, Del Prete S, Abbruzzese A, Martignetti A, et al. 2002. Low-dose recombinant IL-2 induces psychological changes: monitoring by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Anticancer Res. 22(2A):727–732.

(Pizzi et al. 2002)

Volume with no issue or other subdivision

Laskowski DA. 2002. Physical and chemical properties of pyrethroids. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 174:49–170.

(Laskowski 2002)

Volume with issue and supplement

Gardos G, Cole JO, Haskell D, Marby D, Paine SS, Moore P. 1988. The natural history of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Pharmacol. 8(4 Suppl):31S–37S.

(Gardos et al. 1988)

Volume with supplement but no issue

Heemskerk J, Tobin AJ, Ravina B. 2002. From chemical to drug: neurodegeneration drug screening and the ethics of clinical trials. Nat Neurosci. 5 Suppl:1027–1029.

(Heemskerk et al. 2002)

Multiple issue numbers

Ramstrom O, Bunyapaiboonsri T, Lohmann S, Lehn JM. 2002. Chemical biology of dynamic combinatorial libraries. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1572(2–3):178–186.

(Ramstrom et al. 2002)

Issue with no volume

Sabatier R. 1995. Reorienting health and social services. AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. (4):1–3.

(Sabatier 1995)

Books

In the end reference, separate information about author(s), date, title, edition, and publication by periods. The basic format is as follows:

Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes.

Extent can include information about pagination or number of volumes and is considered optional. Notes can include information of interest to the reader, such as language of publication other than English; such notes are optional. Essential notes provide information about location, such as a URL for online works. See Chapter 29 for more information.

For books with 2 authors, names are separated by a comma in the end reference but by “and” in the in-text reference.

Leboffe MJ, Pierce BE. 2010. Microbiology: laboratory theory and application. Englewood (CO): Morton Publishing Company.

(Leboffe and Pierce 2010)

For books with 3 to 10 authors, list all authors in the end reference; in the in-text reference, list only the first, followed by “et al.”

Ferrozzi F, Garlaschi G, Bova D. 2000. CT of metastases. New York (NY): Springer.

(Ferrozzi et al. 2000)

For books with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 in the end reference, followed by “et al.”

Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, DeBusk RF, et al. 1995. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US).

(Wenger et al. 1995)

Organization as author

[ALSG] Advanced Life Support Group. 2001. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London (England): BMJ Books.

(ALSG 2001)

Author(s) plus editor(s) or translator(s)

Klarsfeld A, Revah F. 2003. The biology of death: origins of mortality. Brady L, translator. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press.

Luzikov VN. 1985. Mitochondrial biogenesis and breakdown. Galkin AV, translator; Roodyn DB, editor. New York (NY): Consultants Bureau.

(Klarsfeld and Revah 2003)

(Luzikov 1985)

Chapter or other part of a book, same author(s)

Gawande A. 2010. The checklist manifesto: how to get things right. New York (NY): Metropolitan Books. Chapter 3, The end of the master builder; p. 48–71.

(Gawande 2010)

Chapter or other part of a book, different authors

Rapley R. 2010. Recombinant DNA and genetic analysis. In: Wilson K, Walker J, editors. Principles and techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology. 7th ed. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. p. 195–262.

(Rapley 2010)

Multivolume work as a whole

Alkire LG, editor. 2006. Periodical title abbreviations. 16th ed. Detroit (MI): Thompson Gale. 2 vol. Vol. 1, By abbreviation; vol. 2, By title.

(Alkire 2006)

Dissertations and Theses

Lutz M. 1989. 1903: American nervousness and the economy of cultural change [dissertation]. [Stanford (CA)]: Stanford University.

(Lutz 1989)

Patents

Blanco EE, Meade JC, Richards WD, inventors; Ophthalmic Ventures, assignee. 1990 Nov 13. Surgical stapling system. United States patent US 4,969,591.

(Blanco et al. 1990)

Newspapers

Weiss R. 2003 Apr 11. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals. Washington Post (Home Ed.). Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

(Weiss 2003)

DVDs

Indicate a copyright date with a lowercase “c”.

Johnson D, editor. c2002. Surgical techniques in orthopaedics: anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction [DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1 DVD.

(Johnson c2002)

Websites and Other Online Formats

References to websites and other online formats follow the same general principles as for printed references, with the addition of a date of update/revision (if available) along with an access date and a URL.

Website

Format for end reference:

Title of Homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

If no date of publication can be determined, use a copyright date (if available), preceded by “c”. Include the URL in the notes.

APSnet: plant pathology online. c1994–2005. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. http://www.apsnet.org/.

For the in-text reference, include only the first word or two of the title (enough to distinguish it from other titles in the reference list), followed by an ellipsis.

(APSnet . . . c1994–2005)

Online journal article

Format for end reference:

Author(s) of article. Date of publication. Title of article. Title of journal (edition). [date updated; date accessed];Volume(issue):location. Notes.

A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) may be included in the notes in addition to a URL, if available:

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ. [accessed 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119–1120. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

(Savage et al. 2005)

e-Book

Format for end reference:

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

Example:

Brogden KA, Guthmille JM, editors. 2002. Polymicrobial diseases. Washington (DC): ASM Press; [accessed February 28, 2014]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2475/.

(Brogden and Guthmille 2002)

Blog

Format for end reference:

Author’s name. Date of publication. Title of post [descriptive word]. Title of blog. [accessed date]. URL.

Example:

Fogarty M. 2012 Aug 14. Formatting titles on Twitter and Facebook [blog]. Grammar Girl: Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. [accessed 2012 Oct 19]. http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/formatting-titles-on-twitter-and-facebook.aspx.

(Fogarty 2012)

Forthcoming or Unpublished Material

Not all forthcoming or unpublished sources are suitable for inclusion in reference lists. Check with your publisher if in doubt.

Forthcoming journal article or book

Journal article:

Farley T, Galves A, Dickinson LM, Perez MJ. Forthcoming 2005 Jul. Stress, coping, and health: a comparison of Mexican immigrants, Mexican-Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. J Immigr Health.

(Farley et al. 2005)

Book:

Goldstein DS. Forthcoming 2006. Adrenaline and the inner world: an introduction to scientific integrative medicine. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press.

(Goldstein 2006)

Paper or poster presented at meeting

Unpublished presentations are cited as follows:

Antani S, Long LR, Thoma GR, Lee DJ. 2003. Anatomical shape representation in spine x-ray images. Paper presented at: VIIP 2003. Proceedings of the 3rd IASTED International Conference on Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing; Benalmadena, Spain.

Charles L, Gordner R. 2005. Analysis of MedlinePlus en Español customer service requests. Poster session presented at: Futuro magnifico! Celebrating our diversity. MLA ’05: Medical Library Association Annual Meeting; San Antonio, TX.

(Atani et al. 2003)

(Charles and Gordner 2005)

References to published presentations are cited much like contributions to books, with the addition of information about the date and place of the conference. See Chapter 29 for more information.

Personal communication

References to personal communication are placed in running text rather than as formal end references. Permission is usually required and should be acknowledged in an “Acknowledgment” or “Notes” section at the end of the document.

. . . and most of these meningiomas proved to be inoperable (2003 letter from RS Grant to me; unreferenced, see “Notes”) while a few were not.

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