If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title/name of the item you are citing instead. Follow the title/name of the item with the date of publication, and the continue with other citation details.
Remember: an author/creator may be an organization or corporation, for example Health Canada. If you don't have a person's name as the author, but do have the name of an organization or corporation, put that organization/corporation's name as the author.
If and only if an item is signed as being created by Anonymous, use "Anonymous" where you'd normally put the author's name.
When you have no author, use a shortened version of the title where you'd normally put the author's name.
If you're citing something which is part of a bigger work, like an article from a magazine, newspaper, journal, encyclopedia, or chapter/short story from a book, put the shortened title in quotation marks in your in-text citation:
Example, paraphrase: ("A few words," 2014)
If you're citing an entire work, like a book, website, video, etc., italicize the shortened title in your in-text citation:
Example, paraphrase: (A few words, 2014)
If you are citing a source that has multiple authors, follow these basic steps.
Always cite both authors' names in-text everytime you reference them. Example: Johnson and Smith (2009) found...
Provide all the authors' last names when you first refer to a document with 3-5 authors. Only list the first author with the Latin abbreviation "et al." for any subsequent references.
Jones, Chavez, Jackson, and Chen (2010) duplicated...
Jones et al. (2010) further described...
6 or More Authors:
If a document has six or more authors, simply provide the last name of the first author with "et al." from the first citation to the last.
Thomas et al. (2007) likened abnormal psychology to...
... distractions (Thomas et al., 2007).
Important Note: If you have two or more documents that look the same when shortened, please follow the guidelines set out in the Authors and Dates Matching section.