Bibliography Software Microsoft

Before you can create a bibliography you need to have at least one citation and source in your document that will appear in your bibliography. If you don't have all of the information that you need about a source to create a complete citation, you can use a placeholder citation, and then complete the source information later.

For information about automatically formatting your bibliography in MLA, APA, and Chicago-style see: APA, MLA, Chicago: Automatically format bibliographies.

Note: Placeholder citations do not appear in the bibliography.

Add a new citation and source to a document

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click the arrow next to Style.

  2. Click the style that you want to use for the citation and source. For example, social sciences documents usually use the MLA or APA styles for citations and sources.

  3. Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite.

  4. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Insert Citation.

  5. Do one of the following:

    • To add the source information, click Add New Source, then begin to fill in the source information by clicking the arrow next to Type of source. For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site.

    • To add a placeholder, so that you can create a citation and fill in the source information later, click Add New Placeholder. A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager.

  6. Fill in the bibliography information for the source.

To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.

Now you can create your bibliography.

Notes:

  • If you choose a GOST or ISO 690 style for your sources and a citation is not unique, append an alphabetic character to the year. For example, a citation would appear as [Pasteur, 1848a].

  • If you choose ISO 690-Numerical Reference and your citations still don't appear consecutively, you must click the ISO 690 style again, and then press ENTER to correctly order the citations.

Add additional citations from a previously used source

You can easily access citations you added previously. In fact, you can reuse them throughout your document. It's simple.

  1. Place the cursor where you want to insert a citation, and click References > Insert Citation.

  2. Find the citation by the Author or Tag name, and select the citation.

    Tip: You can insert a placeholder if you need to look up a citation later. Click References > Insert Citation. Click Add New Placeholder, and create a unique Tag name. Find the Placeholder in your content, and click the text to Edit Source details.

Create a bibliography

Now that you’ve inserted one or more citations and sources in your document you can create your bibliography.

  1. Click where you want to insert a bibliography, usually at the end of the document.

  2. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Bibliography.

  3. Click a predesigned bibliography format to insert the bibliography into the document.

Find a source

The list of sources that you use can become quite long. At times you might search for a source that you cited in another document by using the Manage Sources command.

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Manage Sources.

    If you open a new document that does not yet contain citations, all of the sources that you used in previous documents appear under Master List.

    If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for those citations appear under Current List. All the sources that you have cited, either in previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master List.

  2. To find a specific source, do one of the following:

    • In the sorting box, sort by author, title, citation tag name, or year, and then search the resulting list for the source that you want to find.

    • In the Search box, type the title or author for the source that you want to find. The list dynamically narrows to match your search term.

Note: You can click the Browse button in Source Manager to select another master list from which you can import new sources into your document. For example, you might connect to a file on a shared server, on a research colleague's computer or server, or on a Web site that is hosted by a university or research institution.

Edit a source

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Manage Sources.

  2. In the Source Manager dialog box, under Master List or Current List, select the source you want to edit, and then click Edit.

    Note: To edit a placeholder to add citation information, select the placeholder from Current List and click Edit.

  3. In the Edit Source dialog box, make the changes you want and click OK.

Edit a citation placeholder

Occasionally, you may want to create a placeholder citation, and then wait until later to fill in the complete bibliography source information. Any changes that you make to a source are automatically reflected in the bibliography, if you have already created one. A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager.

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Manage Sources.

  2. Under Current List, click the placeholder that you want to edit.

    Note: Placeholder sources are alphabetized in Source Manager, along with all other sources, based on the placeholder tag name. By default, placeholder tag names contain the word Placeholder and a number, but you can customize the placeholder tag name with whatever tag you want.

  3. Click Edit.

  4. Begin to fill in the source information by clicking the arrow next to Type of source. For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site.

  5. Fill in the bibliography information for the source. To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.

The following tables compare reference management software. Researchers using the tables below for comparison in order to evaluate and choose reference management software should note the product's "latest stable release date." An older release date suggests the product is not currently being supported and users may encounter technical issues and little to no technical support.

General[edit]

In the "notes" section, there is a difference between:

  • web-based, referring to applications that may be installed on a web server (usually requiring MySQL or another database and PHP, Perl, Python, or some other language for web applications)
  • a centrally-hosted website
SoftwareDeveloperFirst public releaseLatest stable release dateLatest stable versionCost (USD)Free softwareLicenseNotes
AigaionAigaion developers2005-012013-05-082.2FreeYesGNU GPLweb-based (Apache, PHP, MySQL)
BebopALaRI Institute2007-11-082009-11-101.1FreeYesBSDweb-based BibTeX front-end (Apache, PHP, MySQL)
BibBaseChristian Fritz20052013-07v3FreeNoProprietarycentrally hosted website, intended for publication pages
BibDeskBibDesk developers2002-042017-11-281.6.13FreeYesBSDBibTeX front-end + repository; Cocoa-based; integration with Spotlight
BiblioscapeCG Information19972015-06-2210.0.3.6US$79-299[1]NoProprietaryODBC; web access in Pro ed; optional client/server
BibSonomyUniversity of Kassel2006-012016-12-023.7.0FreeYesAGPL, GPL, LGPL[2]centrally hosted website
BibusBibus developers2004-06-032009-12-011.5.1FreeYesGNU GPL
BookendsSonny Software1988 (Mac) / 1983 (Apple II+)2017-11-1013.0 [3]US$60[1]NoProprietaryintegrated web search, pdf download, auto-completion
CitaviSwiss Academic Software2006-02-132018-02-206.0US$70-949 / Free for projects up to 100 references[4]NoProprietarydata can be saved locally on the computer, or, for team access, in the Citavi Cloud or an intranet Microsoft SQL Server;[5] search databases from interface[6]
CiteULikeOversity Limited2004-11?FreeNoproprietary[7]centrally hosted website
colwizcolwiz Ltd20112016-05-09Free / Online storage free up to 3 GB / Additional storage space availableNoProprietaryDesktop (Win, Mac, Linux) & Web components, iOS and Android
EndNoteClarivate Analytics19882018-01-09X8.2US$299.95[1]NoProprietaryThe web version EndNote basic (formerly, EndNote Web) is free of charge
F1000WorkspaceF1000/Science Navigation Group2015-05Continually updated onlineInstitutional access – varies with size of institute / Personal subscription $9.99/month / Free Trial VersionNoProprietaryWeb-based, Microsoft Word plug-in (Win, Mac), Google Docs add-on, browser extension(s) Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera, Internet Explorer 11, mobile app available
JabRefJabRef developers2003-11-292017-10-044.0FreeYesMIT licenseJavaBibTeX and BibLaTeX manager
KBibTeXKBibTeX developers2005-082015-08-090.6FreeYesGNU GPLBibTeX front-end, using the KDE Software Compilation
MendeleyElsevier2008-0820171.17.10Free / Online storage free up to 2 GB / Additional storage space availableNoproprietary (OS API clients exist)Account required, Desktop & Web components, Windows, Linux, OS X, iPhone & iPad, Android
PaperpileStefan Washietl, Gregorgy Jordan, Andreas Gruber2013Continually updated onlineUS$2.99/month for academics, 9.99/month otherwiseNoProprietaryweb-application, integrates with Google Docs, collaboration & sharing features, currently only on Google Chrome
PapersLabtiva20072016-05-113.4.5US$79[1]NoProprietarysearch repositories from interface; supports plug-ins, Universal iOS app
Pybliographerpybliographer developers1998-10-30 (0.2)2017-10-061.2.18FreeYesGNU GPLPython/GTK2
QiqqaQiqqa2010-042016-09v79Free, Freemium and Premium versionsNoProprietaryDesktop; Tablet; Web; Intranet
ReadCubeLabtiva2011-102016-09-20v2.22.13732Free desktop & mobile app / Cloud Storage $5/month, $55/yearNoProprietaryDesktop (Mac/PC) & Web components, personalized recommendations, private group sharing, integrated web search, enhanced PDF reader, iOS App, Android
refbaserefbase developers2003-06-032014-02-280.9.6FreeYesGNU GPLweb-based for institutional repositories/self-archiving[8]
RefDBrefdb developers2001-04-252007-11-050.9.9FreeYesGNU GPLnetwork-transparent; XML/SGML bibliographies
Reference ManagerThomson Reuters1984201012.0.3Not for sale anymore, sales ceased December 31, 2015NoProprietarynetwork version; built-in web publishing tool; discontinued
ReferencerReferencer developers2008-03-152014-02-271.2.2FreeYesGNU GPLBibTeX front-end
RefWorksRefWorks / ProQuest20012013US$100 per yearNoProprietaryweb-based, browser-accessed, centrally hosted program
RefMERefME2014Shut down on March 7, 2017FreeNoProprietaryWeb, iOS and Android; Chrome and Safari Extensions available; discontinued
SciRefScientific Programs20122015-07-261.5US$38.90 / Free trial versionNoProprietary
SenteThird Street Software, Inc.200420156.7.9US$60–80[1] / Free for libraries up to 100 refsNoProprietaryDesktop and iPad, centralized backup/synching
WikindxMark Grimshaw2004-022014-084.2.2FreeYesGNU GPLweb-based
WizFolioWizPatent2008-062011-01AvataraUS$25 / Free Basic versionNoProprietarycentrally hosted website; discontinued, service ends December 2017
ZoteroRoy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at GMU20062017-075.0.4 [9]Free / Online storage free up to 300 MB / Additional storage space availableYesAGPLMulti-platform desktop version with connectors for Firefox, Chrome and Safari. Web-based access to reference library also available.

Operating system support[edit]

In the case of web applications, this describes the server OS. For centrally hosted websites that are proprietary, this is not applicable. Any client OS can connect to a web service unless stated otherwise in a footnote.

SoftwareWindowsMac OS XLinuxChromeOSBSDUnixiOS AppAndroid AppWindows App
AigaionYesYesYes?YesYesNoNoNo
BebopYesYesYes?YesYesNoNoNo
BibBaseN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A???
BibDeskNoYesNo?NoNoThird-party - PocketBib??
BibSonomyN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A???
BibusYesExperimentalYes?YesYesNoNoNo
BookendsNoYesNo?NoNoYes??
CitaviYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
CiteULikeN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A???
colwizYesYesYes?YesYesYesYesNo
EndNoteYesYesNoNoNoNoYesNoNo
F1000WorkspaceYesYesNoNoNoNoYesYesNo
JabRefYesYesYesNoYesYesNoNoNo
KBibTeXExperimentalExperimentalYes?YesYesNoNoNo
MendeleyYesYesYesNoNoNoYesYesNo
PaperpileYesYesYesYesNo
(requires Chrome)
No
(requires Chrome)
NoNoNo
PapersNoYesNoNoNoNoYesthird party - EZPaperz[10] or Aziz, Lite![11]No
PybliographerPartial[12]Partial[12]Yes?YesYesNoNoNo
QiqqaYesNoNo?NoNoNoYesNo
ReadCubeYesYesNo?NoNoYesYesNo
refbaseYesYesYes?YesYesNoNoNo
RefDBYesYesYes?YesYesNoNoNo
Reference ManagerYes[13]NoNo?NoNoNoNoNo
ReferencerNoNoYes?NoNo???
RefWorks[14]YesYesYes?YesYes???
SciRefYesNoNo?NoNo???
SenteNoYesNo?NoNoYes[15]??
WikindxYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
WizFolioYesYesYes?YesYes???
ZoteroYesYesYes?YesYesthird partythird party - Aziz, Lite![11]No

Export file formats[edit]

This table lists the machine-readable file formats that can be exported from reference managers. These are typically used to share data with other reference managers or with other people who use a reference manager. To exchange data from one program to another, the first program must be able to export to a format that the second program may import. Import file formats are in a table below this one.

SoftwareBibTeXEndnote/Refer/BibIXMedlineMODS XMLRISOther
AigaionYesNoNoNoYesnone
BebopYesNoNoNoNounAPI
BibBaseYesNoNoNoNonone
BibDeskYesNoYesYesYesEndnote XML, user customizable
BibSonomyYesYesNoNoYesvarious [2]
BibusYesYesYesNoYesSQLite
BookendsYesYesYesNoYesvarious user-customizable
CitaviYesYesYesYesYesvarious
CiteULikeYesNoNoNoYesCOinS, Delicious
colwizYesYesNoYesYesEndNote XML, CSL formatted HTML
EndNoteYesYesYesNoYesvarious[16]
F1000WorkspaceYesNoNoNoYesCSV
JabRefYesYesNoYesYesBibTeXML, DocBook, HTML, OpenDocument for OO.o, RTF, SQL database, user-customizable
KBibTeXYesYesNoDepends[17]YesPDF, PostScript, HTML, XML, RTF
MendeleyYesYesNoNoYesEndnote XML
PaperpileYesNoNoNoYesnone
PapersYesYesNoNoYesBookends, CSV, Endnote XML, PDF
PybliographerYesYesYesNoNoOvid
ReadCubeYesYesNoNoYesnone
QiqqaYesNoNoNoNonone
refbaseYesYesNoYesYesCOinS, OpenDocument for OO.o, SRW XML via SRU, unAPI, Word XML
RefDBYesYesNoYesYesSRW XML via SRU web service, DocBook, TEI
Reference ManagerNoNoNoNoYesMEDLARS, TSV, CSV, Reference Manager XML, user-customizable
ReferencerYesNoNoNoNonone
RefWorksYesYesNoNoYesvarious[18]
SciRefNoNoNoNoYesPlain text, RTF
SenteYesYesNoNoYesuser-customizable
WikindxYesYesNoYesYesCOinS, RTF, HTML, ADS, Word BIB
WizFolioNoNoNoNoYesNo
ZoteroYesYesas of version 4.0[19]YesYesCOinS, CSV, Several RDF format standards, TEI, Wikipedia citation templates, Endnote XML, CSL JSON, Refer/BiblX, RefWorks tagged

Import file formats[edit]

This table lists the file formats which may be manually imported into the reference managers without needing to connect to one particular database. Many of these database companies use the same name for their file format as they do for their database (including Copac, CSA, ISI, Medline, Ovid, PubMed, and SciFinder). For the ability to retrieve citations from the particular databases (rather than the file format), please refer to the database connectivity table that is below this table.

SoftwareBibTeXCopacCSAEndnote/Refer/BibIXISIMedlineMODS XMLOvidPubMedRISSciFinderOther
AigaionYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoYesNonone
BebopYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNonone
BibBaseYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNonone
BibDeskYesYesNoYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesMARC, JSTOR, Reference Miner
BiblioscapeYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYes ?
BibSonomyYesNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoFirefox bookmarks
BibusYesNoNoYesYesYesNoNoNoYesNonone
BookendsYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesvarious [3]; user-customizable
CitaviYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesvarious
CiteULikeYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoYesNonone
colwizYesNoNoYesYesYesNoNoYesYesNowith built-in browser, bookmarklet
EndNoteNoNoYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesvarious[20]
F1000WorkspaceYesNoNoYesNoYesNoNoYesYes

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